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WHAT IS ADVERTISING? DIFFERENT TYPES OF ADVERTISING IN 2020

Advertisement is derived from the Latin word “ADVERTERE” which means “TO TURN”. Advertisement is a paid message or information that a sponsor convey to its target audience with the help of different media.
           
According to PHILIP KOTLER (The father of marketing), advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation & promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor, whereas DAVID OGILVY (The father of advertising) stated in his book “Ogilvy on Advertising”, a good advertisement is one which sells the product without drawing attention to itself. There are several quotes on advertising too in his book. Basically, he focuses on four basic principles before designing an advertisement. Those are –1.creative ideas, 2.Research, 3.Actual result for clients & 4.professional discipline.

History of advertising
There is no exact data available when the advertisement has started but it is believed that officially the first newspaper ad was published in 1704. It was a real estate advertisement. Later on in 18th century the trend followed by many newspapers. Then the outdoor advertisement groomed and BillBoard appeared in 1835 and the first-ever advertising agency also formed in 1843 at Philadelphia. Sponsors used specific icons to recognize their product and the BRAND concept has started in 1891. Then at the beginning of 20th-century events & electronic media also followed the trend and by the end of the century internet also puts its impact. But in ancient civilization, we also found the use of advertisements in different forms like
Wall/rock painting- It’s the ancient form of today’s wall painting or wall wrapping. Usually, years ago rulers of different continents spread social messages/information as well as mentioned their rules on rocks to aware of their subjects.
Town criers- Town criers are those who spread the news/ information among people. The system of town criers was present in all civilizations. It was also adopted by many Indian rulers and used till the mid of 19th century also. But by the passing of time, the town criers are replaced by tableau (vehicles with speakers and microphones).
Trademarks- In ancient time people craft some designs/ marks on their products to identify them. Sometimes they also felicitated by the rulers and highly appreciated for their work. Latter on to make their product different from others they used those symbols/ designs that we called logo today. They make their brand and sell it at a high price.
Word of mouth- It’s the most ancient form which is still running successfully and will continue forever. It’s the most convincing direct marketing technique. In ancient times merchants were doing the advertisement of their product verbally, even they demonstrate their product to kings and explains it’s the feature just like today’s salesman. On the other hand, it’s spread from one to another easily.
Events- The event was also another form of advertisement in ancient days. Most of the rulers of different continents used this technique to gather people in one place and convey their message to them. Street play/ puppet show was invented during that period. Events were different types like- play, function, cultural, etc.
Animal parade- In ancient time especially elephants were decorated with clothes on their flanks in such a way that the written message/ information can be visible to people easily. Sometimes the mahout/ person sitting on it also carries the message. Those animals are now replaced by vehicles and clothes with the handwritten message is replaced by banners and digital signage.
Billboard/ posters - Billboard was made of clothes or woods and posters were made by the roots or pith of few plants like papyrus. It’s used by the rulers as well as shopkeepers/ merchants to provide the info and rate of their products. The emperors placed billboards to convey their messages. 
Current forms of advertising
It’s really very difficult to explain the types of advertisements. It’s completely a form of innovation and creative work through which we bring the attention of people towards our product/service. But generally, it’s divided into 3 groups- ATL, BTL & TTL.
ATL (Above The Line) - When we target a large no of people with the help of mass media like-TV, radio, newspapers, magazines & the Internet, it’s known as ATL. Here we target a larger market and basically used for brand awareness. We cannot expect sales or responses from ATL activities. The ATL budget is always high in comparison to BTL.
BTL (Below The Line) – The objective of BTL is very clear. It’s used when we target a niche market, expecting some response or to generate sales from the campaign. Here the budget is a bit low in comparison to ATL. BTL campaign includes – banners, posters, pole kiosks, vehicle branding, leaflet/brochure, sales promotions, standees, canopy, on-ground activities, sponsors, etc.
TTL (Through The Line) - We can say it’s a combination of both ATL & BTL, here the company tries to promote their brand expecting some response from it. This means the objective of the campaign is both brandings as well as sales. Example – In a newspaper campaign, u ll also find a QR Code, by scanning which you’ll get the direct discount from the shop. Here the ad is for masses, everyone seeing that ad, but only a few people will scan and avail for discount.
Objectives – The objective or purpose behind a campaign is the most crucial part of any campaign. Considering that we can choose our market, target audience as well as we can design our strategy.
Different types of Advertising
These are the most popular forms of advertisement adopted by many brands.
Print Ad- Those advertisements are published in a printed format is known to be print ad. It may be a newspaper, magazine or any kind of booklet also. Generally, we divide print ads into 2 formats- display & classified. When the ad comes with a fixed size or format in a traditional form without any pictures is known as a classified ad. But on the display, we can place our ad on any page and can design any size with pictures and text. The display ad rate is much higher than the classified ad.
Broadcast Ad – Broadcast ads are those, what we spread through electronic media like TV & radio and appeal to a large no of people. Normal broadcast ads are known as spots and rates are calculated for 10sec, But now many innovative formats have been invented by the broadcasters to give a mileage to the advertiser.
Outdoor Ad – Outdoor or out-of-home ad are those, what we see outside of our home like hoardings, uni polls, public utility branding, etc.
Surrogate Ad- Surrogate advertisements are those kinds of advertisements that companies are used to promote their banned products. Suppose in India liquor ads are banned, so the company will show the ads of water/ soda with the same name.
Covert Ad/ Product placement- In this category, we do indirect ads & relate it with our scripts. In movies or programs, the product is demonstrated in the background or the characters using that product or services as the script is running inflow.
Guerrilla Ad- Guerrilla advertising is also a part of BTL advertising. The main motto of this ad is to bring the attention of people towards it. It’s presented in such a way that its impact on consumers' mind lasts a long and also grip the market for its innovative presentation. For example- A huge cold drink bottle shape artwork, placed in a public area.
Personal sales- In this category, the company appoints promoters to push sales. The promoters/ salesperson visit personally and convinced the customers to generate sales.
Word of mouth- As mentioned in the above, it’s the most trustworthy and effective medium running from ancient days. Once the customer is convinced, it spreads like fire with less effort.
Events- Event is also another platform where we can create awareness, demonstrate the product, and also generate sales. Sponsoring specific events as per our TG is a choice of a good advertiser.
Digital/ Online Ad – In today’s generation the most effective category is online/digital advertising. Those ads we see through the internet is known as an online advertisement. It may be in the format of a classified or A/V streaming format.
Different types of Digital advertisement platforms are-
Ø  Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, Linked-in, Instagram, TikTok, etc.)
Ø  Website
Ø  SEO (Search Engine Optimisation)
Ø  Blogging
Ø  PPC (Pay per click)
Ø   Audio-video streaming
Ø  YouTube channel
Ø  Affiliate marketing
Ø  Email marketing



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